How flour is made

Flour is an effect of grain milling and constitutes a raw material for further processing. It is not consumed in its pure form, unlike groats or flakes. Before milling grains are properly moisturized, so as it is easy to remove the hard cover. As a result of the moisturization the cover becomes "loose" and can be removed in a form of a bran. The remaining part of the grain is crushed and ground. The aleurone layer containing minerals is dark and thick, while the endosperm is very light-coloured and can be finely ground. 
As an effect of milling we get wholemeal flour, or various other quality flours. The name "wholemeal" (Polish: razowa) comes from the method of milling, which means that grain without bran is milled only once (Polish: raz). This gives a dark, coarse flour containing all grain components. This flour is perfect for bread, sometimes it is used for pierogi and cakes. Contrary to the popular belief, wholemeal flour can be both rye and wheat. Wholemeal wheat flour is called graham and is used for baking graham wheat bread. When making wholemeal flour, from 1 ton of wheat we obtain 250 kg of animal fodder brans and 750 kg of wholemeal flour. Another type of milling is the so called "triple-milling", during which grist (the effect of first milling) is milled twice more, while individual types (fractions) of flour are screened. As a result of triple-milling we get several types of flours, intended for various uses. From 1 ton of wheat (1000 kg) we can obtain various kinds of flour. For 50 years there was a state monopoly for flour production in Poland. There was a Polish standard, according to which specific types of flour were manufactured, and to which all Polish recipes for flour products are adapted. These are not the same types of flour that can be found in other countries.